China is the hottest country to deploy four IPv6 r

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China deploys four IPv6 root servers: looking at the role of a big country, the general office of the CPC Central Committee and the general office of the State Council issued the action plan for promoting the scale deployment of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) (hereinafter referred to as the plan)

The plan points out that accelerating the scale deployment of IPv6 is an inevitable trend of the evolution and upgrading of global interconnection, a major opportunity for the innovation and development of the technology industry, and an urgent need to strengthen network security capabilities. The plan also proposes that it will take five to ten years to form an independent technology system and industrial ecosystem for next-generation interconnection, build the world's largest IPv6 commercial application network, and realize the deep integration and application of next-generation interconnection in various fields of economy and society

in addition, the "snowman program" led by the next generation Internet National Engineering Center has completed the erection of 25 IPv6 root servers worldwide. China deployed four of them, including one main root and three auxiliary roots. From scratch, China has completely broken the dilemma of no root server

root server has a far-reaching impact on the country

root server is one of the key facilities for building interconnection. Its main function is to manage the main directory of interconnection, which is called "truth" by many computer scientists

before the "snowman plan" was proposed, there were only 13 root servers in the world. Only one of them is the primary root server, and the other 12 are secondary root servers. The primary root server is set up in the United States, while nine secondary root servers are set up in the United States, and the remaining three are located in the United Kingdom, Sweden and Japan

to some extent, the root server controls the global interconnection, and the country that controls the root server is equivalent to controlling the lifeline of multinational interconnection. Therefore, under the management system of sharing 13 root servers, the situation with the United States as the dominant position poses a great challenge to the network security of other countries

in July 1997, a blank Internet address allocation list caused by human error was automatically transmitted between the root servers. This error led to the most serious local service interruption of the Internet. E-mail could not be sent and pages could not be accessed within a few days

in October 2002, these 13 root servers encountered the largest DDoS (distributed denial of service) attack in history, more than 30 times the conventional number. In addition, AD converters - 40 times the data violently invaded these servers, resulting in seven root servers losing their ability to handle network communications, and two followed suit and fell into paralysis

in January 2014, " event" occurred. Due to DNS pollution or DNS hijacking and other reasons, a wide range of access failures have occurred in the DNS domain name resolution system in China, resulting in many well-known stations such as Baidu and Sina being inaccessible for several hours

although the cause of most accidents is not the root domain name server itself, but many fragile machines on the Internet. After these fragile machines are implanted into the DDoS client program, sending packets to the root domain name server at the same time will interfere with the operation of the server or even directly lead to its collapse

in addition, network war has become an important part of modern war, and the network security challenges faced by countries without root servers are even more severe. In order to completely eliminate similar accidents, it is urgent to obtain the management right to manage the root server of the home Internet home directory

the successful implementation of the "snowman plan" and China's role

for individuals, the existence of the root server ensures that people can normally use Internet services and applications. From sending messages to browsing pages, the root server has gone deep into all levels of the Internet and become a key part of people's network life; For China, the root server is closely related to the lifeline of national interconnection. The failure of the domain name system will lead to local or global paralysis of the interconnection, which is related to the security and stability of the interconnection and is a key link affecting China's information security. Once the root server vulnerability is discovered and successfully exploited by malicious attackers, the consequences will be unimaginable

before the "snowman plan" was put forward, the United States, as the birthplace of Internet and a powerful information technology country, has long monopolized the operation management and strategic resources of global Internet. Under the past IPv4 management system, the United States has dominated the root server for nearly 30 years relying on its technological advantages. The management system of sharing 13 root servers globally has led to an extremely uneven management and distribution of key resources of global interconnection, resulting in polarization. The United States, Britain and other countries have their own technological foundation and resource advantages, which have been further developed. While other countries are difficult to obtain sufficient resources to develop themselves; On the other hand, the lack of root servers makes it difficult for countries to resist large-scale DDoS attacks, which brings hidden dangers to the interconnection security of countries

in this context, China's Internet Engineering Center jointly launched the "snowman plan" with wide institutions, Internet domain name Engineering Center and other organizations in 2013. At the beginning of its establishment, the project received response and support from organizations from Japan, the European Union, Russia and other countries

"snowman plan" is based on the new technical framework such as the sixth version of the internet protocol. It aims to break the number limit of 13 root servers shared globally, overcome the technical defects of root servers in scalability, security and other aspects, formulate more perfect operation rules of the next generation of Internet root servers, and prepare for the deployment of the next generation of Internet root servers around the world

on November 28, 2017, the "snowman plan" led by China's National Engineering Center for Internet has completed the erection of two IPv6 root servers for the above situations worldwide, four of which are deployed by China, including one primary root server and three secondary root servers. This achievement also completely broke the dogma of "uneven resource allocation" and "unchangeable quantity" of the past 13 root servers, formed a management system of multi-party governance and global interconnection, and truly realized the vision of "one world, one Internet"

the rise of IPv6 IPv4 will withdraw from the historical stage

the plan puts forward the following goals: by the end of 2018, the number of IPv6 active users in China will reach 200million, accounting for no less than 20% of Internet users; by the end of 2020, the number of IPv6 active users in China will exceed 500million, accounting for more than 50% of Internet users. The plan also proposes that by the end of 2025, China's IPv6 network scale, user scale and traffic scale will rank first in the world. Networks, applications and terminals will fully support IPv6, fully complete the smooth evolution and upgrading of next-generation interconnection, and form a world leading next-generation interconnection technology industry system

China is the country that carried out IPv6 test and application earlier in the world. It has made important phased achievements in technology research and development, network construction and application innovation, and has the foundation and conditions for large-scale deployment. In the face of the new changes in the direction opposite to the impact of the global network information technology acceleration gap and the rapid evolution and upgrading of information infrastructure, accelerating the scale deployment of IPv6 and building a high-speed, widely popularized, full coverage and intelligent next-generation interconnection is to speed up the construction of a network power, accelerate the process of national informatization, and help economic and social development To win the future international competition, new Evonik will expand the production scope of Birmingham in the United States and Darmstadt in Germany

compared with IPv4, IPv6 has the following advantages:

1 Larger address space. The length of IP address is 128, and the maximum number of addresses is 2^128

2. Using a smaller routing table improves the speed of the router forwarding packets

3. Enhanced multicast support and streaming support are added, which provides a good network platform for quality of service control

4. With the support of automatic configuration, the network management is more convenient and fast

5. Users can encrypt the data of the network layer and verify the IP message, which has higher security

6. IPv6 allows the protocol to be extended when new technologies or applications are needed

at present, the next generation Internet based on IPv6 has become a leading field for countries to promote the revolution of new technology industry and reshape national competitiveness. According to the analysis and prediction of relevant institutions, IPv4 will completely withdraw from the historical stage within 10 years, and Internet will be comprehensively transformed into IPv6. By taking the lead in IPv6, China will have more say in the field of global Internet in the future

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